Technical Approach

For the implementation of the project, DANSE uses a spiral development process.

  1. The first iteration focuses on SoS high-level modelling and integration analysis, introducing the new DANSE SoS formalisation, with initial ability to model, simulate and analyse the behaviour of the constituent systems and the SoS as a whole. Therefor the focus is on new languages and semantics for enhanced SoS design.
  2. The second iteration adds early validation aspects of constituent systems, more robust simulation and early optimisation techniques, i.e. the new SoS semantics for new formation of simulation, optimisation and formal analysis techniques.
  3. The third and last iteration enhances the first two cycles with full demonstration of DANSE methodology, including its developed analysis, simulation and optimisation techniques, supported by the DANSE systems engineering life-cycle.

To achieve these challenges DANSE addresses the following innovation points:

  • A new evolutionary, adaptive and iterative SoS life-cycle model, offering evolutionary simulation, analysis, and development of the SoS in real time.
  • Development of new formal semantics for SoS modelling based on an architectural framework and extending the SPEEDS concept of “contracts” to provide a formal semantic language that applies directly to SoS.
  • A formal method for “correct by evolution” analysis which constantly guarantees that the SoS evolves towards its current goals.
  • High-level behavioural simulation based on SoS abstraction using theoretical relationships rather than detailed event-level simulation and using statistical approaches to capture the limited knowledge of the component systems.
  • Methods and tools to allow optimisation at the global SoS level and at the local level of constituent systems, in face of possibly contradicting goals.
A description of the DANSE Methodology can be found here


Within DANSE a number of so-called "Solution Methods" was developed. These solution methods fulfil the role of use cases of the DANSE methodology. The Figure above shows a typical usage flow of the solution methods for an SoS architect.SoS requirements analysis leads to the creation of GCSL and the end-to-end solution method Evaluate Goals and Contracts (section 5.9).  The use of DANSE tools allows system modelling with the solution methods Model SoS (5.1) and Abstract CS Model (5.2).SoS architecture changes can be explored using the solution methods Apply Architecture Patterns (5.3), Generate Optimized Architectures (5.5), and Generate Architecture Alternatives (5.4). The models can be executed and checked using Perform Joint Simulation (5.6) and Perform Statistical Model Checking (5.7).  Parameters and behaviour can be analysed and evaluated using Evaluate Emergent Behaviour (5.8), while compliance with goals/contracts and other requirements can be checked using Perform Formal Verification (5.10).  Not shown but important is the implementation of the Tool-Net environment to support all the solution methods using Configure DANSE Tool-Net Environment (5.11).

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